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Program

EN IT

Updated A.Y. 2020-2021

Business Organization

(Prof. Luca Gnan - Prof. Giulia Flamini)

Teaching Members Responsible for the Course

Prof. Luca Gnan

E-mail: luca.gnan@uniroma2.it

Availability: Contact via e-mail

Prof. Giulia Flamini

E-mail: giulia.flamini@uniroma2.it

Availability: Contact via e-mail

We are committed to make this course a valuable learning experience for you. After the first month, we will spend part of a class session evaluating our progress, and we will make any necessary changes to keep us on track. However, we welcome your feedback at any time in the semester. It is easiest to reach us by e-mail or during office hours, but we are always happy to set up an appointment. Additionally, if you have a disability that requires special accommodation, please let us know ASAP to be helpful to you.

E-mails, Office Hours & Feedback on Assignments

We endeavor to answer e-mails within one day. If you have not heard from us within that time, please resend the e-mail. We will online post grades and comments on the materials section of the course website. We will be happy to give feedback and discuss assignments after grading is complete for a specific assignment. Office hours are scheduled by e-mail request.

We may answer questions of assignment clarification in class and via e-mails to benefit the entire class. We may also give extra grades (see below Mid-course test) during the course to help your participation while generally designed to support learning in the course. These are pass/fail and do not include comments.

Course positioning

The Business Organization course is included in the Business Administration curriculum in the Bachelor of Science in Business Administration & Economics.

Prerequisites for the course

None

Course description and learning objectives

Organizations comprise both a macro perspective (the organization as a whole and its respective functions/divisions and departments) and a micro perspective (individuals and groups' behavior). The course covers organizational design and behavior from both a macro and a micro perspective. Individuals do not behave independently of the organizational structure in which they perform. Understanding both the macro and micro perspectives and how these two interrelations are essential for understanding organizations and their effective management.

The course covers principles of organization design and its effects on specific behavioral processes. Specific issues and problems covered include the organization's relationship with the external environment, the influence of the organization's strategies, culture, size, and production technology on its design and strategy for managing organizational behavior such as teams, conflict, power, and politics.

The course's objective is twofold: first, to make the student understand business organizations' functioning. Second, to introduce the basic concepts needed to design, implement, and change the organizational structure. The course helps students become good analysts of organization design and its impact on the organization's performance.

Upon successful completion of the course, students will be able to:

1. Identify and explain various organization components and their relationship to one another (understanding systemic relationships and consequences).

2. Analyze, assess, and diagnose organization effectiveness, including organizational culture and values.

3. Develop a framework for changing design elements and relationships.

4. Describe the principles of designing organizations.

5. Explain how management and organization design can lead to a strategic advantage.

6. Discuss in-depth issues of implementation of various design strategies and interventions.

7. Explain the relationship between leadership, organizational design, and effectiveness.

Teaching Methods

Lectures are characterized by the transfer of knowledge and the strong interaction within the classroom; analyses of situations, problems, and business cases facilitate learning participants.

Regular attending students are strongly recommended to participate in all the lectures and all the business cases' preparations and presentations.

The course uses readings, lectures, cases, individual and team assignments, and class discussions to meet its goals. Case assignments provide an essential foundation for class discussion and must be completed before each class session. At the end of the syllabus, the class schedule lists the due dates for cases and other assignments. Lectures highlight key points from the readings and provide additional information to supplement the lessons. Cases offer you the opportunity to apply what you have learned to real-world issues and scenarios. Because each of you brings unique perspectives and experiences to the class, participation in class discussions and activities is essential to your learning and other class members. To further enrich your learning, you will also be matched with a BAE Teaching Assistant.

Required Textbook, Readings, and Business Cases

Textbook:

1. Daft, R.L., Organizational Theory and Design, 12th ed., (2015). Southwestern Cengage Learning, Mason, OH; ISBN: 9781285866345

Readings:

2. A. Hinna, (2011) – Translated by G. Flamini, (2019). Classical theories. From M. Decastri, Editor, (2011). Leggere e progettare le organizzazioni, Edizioni Angelo Guerini e Associati SpA, Milano; ISBN: 978-88-8107-316-0

3. V. Perrone, (2011) – Translated by D. Petrolo, (2019). Traditional base organizational structures. From M. Decastri, Editor, (2011). Leggere e progettare le organizzazioni, Edizioni Angelo Guerini e Associati SpA, Milano; ISBN: 978-88-8107-316-0

4. James D. Thompson's Organization in Action (Chapter 6) From Tosi, H.L. Theories of Organization, SAGE Publications, Inc, California 91320, 2009.

5. Organizing modes: an information processing model (Chapter 3) From Galbraith, J. R. Organization Design, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, USA, 1977.

6. D. Tomasi, (2011) – Translated by G. Flamini, (2019). Motivation to work. From M. Decastri, Editor, (2011). Leggere e progettare le organizzazioni, Edizioni Angelo Guerini e Associati SpA, Milano; ISBN: 978-88-8107-316-0

Business cases:

7. COLOPLAST A/S – ORGANIZATIONAL CHALLENGES IN OFFSHORING

8. WILDFIRE ENTERTAINMENT: ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE ARCHETYPES

9. OP4.COM: A DYNAMIC CULTURE

10. BOLDFLASH CROSS-FUNCTIONAL CHALLENGES IN THE MOBILE DIVISION

Case Discussions

Regular attending students are expected to be fully engaged in the entire learning process. Consequently, regular attending students are expected to:

1) prepare the assigned readings of the cases before each class.

2) Prepare as a group work a PowerPoint presentation on the case, based on the specific assignment.

3) Come to class ready to participate and discuss enhancing the learning of the individual and the class.

On the web site of the course, for each case, students can find the relative assignment. Please read the questions carefully before the session and use them for preparing the PowerPoint presentation.

Each student will be involved in the class discussion tied to the assigned reading for the session. The objective is to bring all class members into the debate. The cases are designed to integrate the concepts from the case into the context of the course. The cases' preparation and discussion do not exclude the study of the theoretical concepts useful for discussing the cases themselves and passing the course's Exam.

With the cases' discussions in the CLASSROOM, each student will develop:

1. The ability to set the parameters for the problem (key concepts from the case).

2. A depth of knowledge about the case subject (understanding the material, good response to others' observations).

3. The ability to tie-in case with other course concepts.

4. The ability to get others involved in the discussion.

To effectively discuss the cases, students do:

  • Be prepared with facts and specific quotes from the case.

· Be prepared to comment, ask a question, or make an observation about the case.

During the discussion, students do:

  • Take a position on a question or a point.
  • Ask clarifying questions.
  • Help keep the discussion moving and on track.
  • Help draw others into the discussion.
  • Integrate theories and content from other cases.

During the discussion, students do not:

  • Be unprepared and show your lack of knowledge.
  • Monopolize the discussion.
  • Make irrelevant comments.
  • Be insensitive to other's desire to speak or to their opinions.

All the regular attending students are kindly invited to build up workgroups (MINIMUM 3 PERSONS – MAXIMUM 5 PERSONS). Each workgroup should prepare a PowerPoint presentation for each case. Into the first slide, the names of the students belonging to the group should be reported.

The structure of the presentation should follow the following outline:

1. One or more introductory slides aimed to describe/report the story, the characters, all the necessary elements to define the context, and the case's boundaries.

2. One slide mentioning the questions of the assignment and underlining the learning goals of the case.

3. One or more slides reporting the answers to each question of the assignment.

4. One or more slides reporting the final remarks on the case.

5. One closing slide about the lessons learned after the group discussion of the case.

How to prepare the PowerPoint presentation of the case?

Introduction – short presentation of the case, a brief description of the problems and situations that should be coped with the discussion.

Diagnosis – Problem setting of the context and the situation. Description of the mains facts and elements connected with the concepts and models of Business Organization (e.g., structure, coordination, organizational change, conflicts, motivation, satisfaction, leadership, managing people, group dynamics, etc.). What went wrong, and which actions/situations, instead, were right? Which elements could the diagnosis consider?

Solution – Students should provide a possible answer to questions/problems related to the case and a possible and unambiguous indication of how to approach the situation and how to solve it. The entire proposal should represent a consistent action plan in terms of behaviors and expected results.

Conclusions – Conclusions should not be longer than 300-500 words and should describe how the situation and the problem characterized the case, how Business Organization schemata might help solve the case, and what the proposed solution might generate in terms of organizational consequences.

Lessons learned – At the end of the presentation, elements/suggestions/advice that we "take-home" from the case discussion should be identified and reported.

NOTE: During the case discussion, students should explicitly address the context and the different situations with concepts related to Business Organization and with models and theories of this course.

Case Discussions' Class Participation

We believe that the best way to learn, especially about BO, is to participate in your education actively. Here, we define "participation" in terms of quality contributions to class discussion and exercises. There are four prerequisites for successful participation:

1. Be here on time and prepared. If you are not here, you cannot contribute much to class discussion. If you need to miss class for a predictable reason (e.g., job interview, athletic competition), please notify us at least 24 hours in advance so that we can make arrangements for any in-class exercises and so that you can obtain the materials distributed during the class. Of course, we realize that in some cases, unforeseeable emergencies arise. Although we will not directly penalize you for non-attendance, be aware that multiple absences will indirectly hurt you by preventing you from participating in class, thereby lowering your participation grade. To contribute to class discussion, you must come to class having prepared all assignments (i.e., readings, cases, exercises).

2. Be brave. Everyone in this class is smart, engaging, and has unique life experiences to share. You will get the most out of this course if you ask questions, voice opinions, and express your thoughts to one another. If you feel uncomfortable talking in class, please send me an e-mail or set up an appointment to talk with me early in the semester. We will do everything we can to accommodate each of your circumstances, but we can only do so if they are brought to our attention.

3. Be courteous. Successful participation includes treating your classmates respectfully and professionally. Listen carefully to the comments and questions that your classmates voice. You may learn something new from their perspectives, and you will be able to avoid merely repeating something that another classmate has said earlier in the discussion. Also, it is perfectly acceptable for you to voice disagreement with an opinion provided by another student. The open debate often leads to the most thoughtful and informative class discussions. However, please express your disagreement in a kind and considerate manner.

4. Be engaged. This class is "unplugged." Once class starts, all electronics (e.g., computers, cell phones, tablets, etc.) should be turned off and put away. If you need to use a device because of a language or disability issue, you need to secure permission at the beginning of the class. The misuse of an electronic device (e.g., surfing the web or texting) will adversely affect your grade.

By 8:00pm of the day before the case discussion, EACH MEMBER OF A GROUP should upload the workgroup's case presentation into the course website.

Policy for Late Assignments

As in the business world, workgroups must be received on time to receive full credit. If you are late on an assignment, your access to the 1st Exam after the course will be compromised. You are always welcome to hand in an assignment before its due date if you know that you will be busy as the due date approaches. If you think that you will not complete an assignment by the stated due date, please speak with us in advance to make alternative arrangements. Our policy on late assignments will depend on the specific circumstances surrounding the problem and may differ from student to student. Providing advance notice about a late assignment will minimize the penalty you receive on that assignment but does not guarantee that there will be no penalty for turning the assignment in late.

A LATE OR A MISSING CASE PRESENTATION SUBMISSION WILL CAUSE A PENALTY OF -1 POINT ON THE GRADE OF THE 1ST EXAM AFTER THE COURSE.

Other learning sources

Slides and other material will be available under the course web site.

THE SLIDES DO NOT REPRESENT A SUPPORT FOR AN EFFECTIVE AND SUCCESSFUL PREPARATION TO THE EXAM OF THE COURSE. THEY REPRESENT ONLY A HELP TO FACILITATE THE TRANSFER OF THE KNOWLEDGE TO STUDENTS DURING THE LECTURES.

Attendance

Because of the concentrated nature of the BAE program, attendance in class is crucial.

NOTE : Attendance to the first-class session is mandatory. We will share important information about the course during the first session, and we disclose our expectations. If you know that you will have to be absent for one session, please contact your instructor to ensure that absence from a particular session is acceptable.

Scheduling of lectures

Students are advised to check the course's correct scheduling on the website and register themselves in the course newsletter to access all the related communications.

Exams

The Exam is oral, and it includes some questions directly connected to the course textbooks, the readings, and the business cases. You may be asked to discuss the models and the theories presented during the course. You will be asked to interpret some real incidents and focus your attention on some specific theoretical issues.

Only students who have booked the Exam on the DELPHI System will be allowed to register their grades.

Mid-Course test

The mid-course test is a written exam. The duration is 2 hours.

It includes some questions directly connected to the lectures and the course textbooks. The questions could be open, closed (multiple choice), or a combination of both. You may be asked to discuss the models and the theories presented during the course. You will be asked to interpret some real incidents and focus your attention on some specific theoretical issues.

To the mid-course test, regular attending students will be allowed to achieve to a maximum of +3 extra points to the final grade of the 1st Exam after the course. The additional points of the mid-course test are valid ONLY for the 1st Exam after the course.

The 1ST Exam after the course

The 1st Exam after the course is a written exam. The duration is about 3-4 hours, and it includes:

a) Case discussion - You may be given a case study to which some questions may lead to the discussion. As you respond to the questions, please use specific content and theories (use names to identify approaches and models) based on your analysis. You will not receive credit for your personal opinions unless backed by theory, lecture, and text material. Also, describe how you see the content/theory applying to the situation. Your answers will be evaluated based on both quantity and quality. Solutions that are complete and demonstrate a higher level of understanding and analysis will receive more points.

b) Some questions directly connected to the course textbooks. The questions could be open, closed (multiple choice), or a combination of both. You may be asked to discuss the models and the theories presented during the course. You will be asked to interpret some real incidents and focus your attention on some specific theoretical issues .

 

Class Schedule

Lecture

Topic

Subtopic

Reading Assignment

1

Organizations and Organization Design

  • What is an Organization?
  • Dimensions of Organization Design
  • The Evolution of Organization Design

· The Contrast of Organic and Mechanistic Designs

· Contemporary Design Ideas: Radical Decentralization

The goal of the lecture is to explore the nature of organizations and the organization theory today. We begin with a formal definition of organization, and then we explore introductory concepts for describing and analyzing organizations. Next, the scope and nature of organization theory are discussed. We examine the history of organization theory and design, a framework for understanding organizational forms, the development of new organizational forms in response to changes in the environment, and how organization theory can help people manage complex organizations in a rapidly changing world.

Chapter 1( [1] )

Pages: 2-38

Recommended reading :

It isn't so simple: infrastructure change at Royce Consulting.

Pages: 38-42

2

Organization Size, Life Cycle, and Decline

  • Organization Size: Is Bigger Better?

· Organizational Life Cycle, Size, Bureaucracy, and Control

  • Bureaucracy
  • Bureaucracy versus Other Forms of Control
  • Organizational Decline and Downsizing

In this lecture, we explore large versus small organizations and how size relates to structure and control. Organization size is a contextual variable that influences organization design and functioning, just as do the contextual variables— technology, environment, goals—discussed in previous chapters. In the first section, we look at the advantages of large versus small size. Then, we explore an organization's life cycle and the structural characteristics at each stage. Next, we examine the bureaucracy's historical need to control large organizations and compare bureaucratic control to various control strategies. Finally, we look at the causes of organizational decline and discuss some methods for dealing with downsizing. By the end of this chapter, you should recognize when bureaucratic control can make an organization effective and when other control types are more appropriate.

Chapter 9( [2] )

Pages: 342-374

Recommended readings:

Yahoo: "Get to Work!"

Pages: 375-376.

Sunflower Incorporated. Pages: 376-377.

3

Classical theories of organization

  • The Scientific Management Theory (Taylor)
  • The Administrative School (Fayol)

In this lecture, we analyze the contribution of Taylor - theorist of the Scientific Management Theory: the organization of work must be based on precise and scientific studies. Then, Fayol, the administrative school's father, is compared, proposing specific management principles as the foundation of managerial practices and organizational planning.

Classical theories (A. Hinna, 2011 – Translated by G. Flamini, 2019)

4

Strategy, Organization Design, and Effectiveness

  • Goals, Strategy and Organization Design
  • Organizational Goals
  • Frameworks for Selecting Strategy and Design
  • Assessing Organizational Effectiveness
  • Four Effectiveness Approaches

· An Integrated Effectiveness Model

This lecture explains how Top managers can give direction to organizations. This lecture aims to help students understand the types of goals that organizations pursue and some of the competitive strategies that managers use to reach those goals. We will provide an overview of strategic management, examine two significant frameworks for determining strategic action, and examine how strategies affect organization design.

Moreover, the lecture describes the most popular approaches to measuring the effectiveness of organizational efforts. To manage organizations successfully, managers need a clear sense of how to measure effectiveness; herewith, we discuss goals, resources, internal processes, and strategic approaches to measuring effectiveness. We explain the competing value model and how it relates to effectiveness.

Chapter 2( [3] )

Pages: 46-80

Recommended reading:

The Venable Museum of Art. Pages: 80-83

5

COLOPLAST CASE DISCUSSION

COLOPLAST A/S – ORGANIZATIONAL CHALLENGES IN OFFSHORING

6

Fundamentals of Organization Structure

  • Organization Structure
  • Information-Sharing Perspective on Structure
  • Organization Design Alternatives
  • Simple, Functional, and Divisional Designs

This lecture introduces basic organization structure concepts and shows how to design a structure as it appears on an organizational chart. First, we define what a structure is and provide an overview of the structural design. Next, we describe the three key components of organizational structure. Finally, we explain the vertical and horizontal information-sharing, describing how to design vertical and horizontal linkages to foster information flows and coordination.

We present and describe the basic design options during the lecture, followed by strategies for grouping organizational activities into a simple, functional, or divisional form. We understand the role of task forces and teams in the organization structure.

Chapter 3( [4] )

Pages: 86-129

Recommended readings:

C & C Grocery Stores.

Pages: 130-133.

Aquarius Advertising Agency.

Pages: 133-135.

Traditional base organizational structures (V. Perrone, 2011 – Translated by D. Petrolo, 2019)

7

Fundamentals of Organization Structure

· The choice between Functional and divisional structure

  • Modified Functional Designs
  • By Product
  • By Project
  • Matrix design

We present and describe the modified functional design options during this lecture, followed by strategies for grouping organizational activities into a product, project, and matrix form.

Chapter 3( [5] )

Pages: 86-129

Recommended readings:

C & C Grocery Stores.

Pages: 130-133.

Aquarius Advertising Agency.

Pages: 133-135.

Traditional base organizational structures (V. Perrone, 2011 – Translated by G. Flamini, 2019)

8

WILDFIRE ENTERTAINMENT CASE DISCUSSION

WILDFIRE ENTERTAINMENT: ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE ARCHETYPES

9

MID-COURSE TEST

10

Designing Organizations for the International Environment

  • Entering the Global Arena
  • The Challenges of Global Design
  • Designing Structure to Fit Global Strategy
  • Additional Global Coordination Mechanisms
  • The Transnational Model of Organization

In this lecture, we explore how managers design the organization for the international environment. We begin by looking at some of the primary motivations for organizations to expand internationally, the typical stages of international development, and the use of strategic alliances as a means for international expansion. Then, we examine global strategic approaches and the application of various structural designs for global advantage. Next, we discuss some of the specific challenges global organizations face, mechanisms for addressing them, and cultural differences that influence the organization's approach to designing and managing a global firm. Finally, we look at the transnational model, a global organization that achieves high levels of the varied capabilities needed to succeed in a complex and volatile international environment.

Chapter 6( [6] )

Pages: 212-247

Recommended readings:

TopDog Software

Pages: 248-249.

Rhodes Industries.

Pages: 249-252.

11

Organizational action and uncertainty, complexity

  • Thompson
  • Galbraith

Thompson develops the concept of organizational action as a process of actions oriented by intentional and bounded rationality to address environmental uncertainty. In the development of its organizational process, each organization builds its field of action and, therefore, the points of contact with the environment.

Then, an organization protects its technical core from constraints and contingencies, with organizational actions that improve the second component of an organization's intentional rationality, the organizational rationality. Organizational rationality - the management of interdependencies - then becomes a fundamental element in reducing uncertainty.

The contingency approach evolves with the concept of "predictability of tasks." Galbraith analyses how the external environment's influences or other context variables on the organizational system or subsystem influence the organizational structure. It is a set of elements that allow performing tasks with different degrees of predictability. The volume of information to be collected and processed to carry out a given activity efficiently depends on the other degree of predictability of the tasks. The proposed model is taken from the Italian organizational literature, which integrates the concept of "information complexity" of the tasks at the end of the Seventies.

James D. Thompson's Organization in Action (Chapter 6) From Tosi, H.L. Theories of Organization, SAGE Publications, 2009

Organizing modes: an information processing model (Chapter 3) From Galbraith, J. R. Organization Design, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, USA, 1977

12

Manufacturing and Service Technologies

  • Core Organization Service Technology
  • Noncore Departmental Technology
  • Workflow Interdependence among Departments
  • Sociotechnical Systems

In this lecture, we describe both core and noncore work processes and their relationship to organization design. We analyze the nature of service technologies and their impact on organization design. We began with an examination of how technology influences the organization's structure and design.

Moreover, we explore how interdependence – the flow of materials and information – affects organization design among departments. First, we learn to recognize departmental technology and its relationship to department design. Then, we analyze the three types of interdependencies and the respective structural priority understanding the sociotechnical systems concept.

Chapter 7( [7] )

Pages: 273-293

Recommended reading:

AV Corporate: Software Tool Project. Pages: 294-299.

13

Motivation to work: needs and processes

  • Work and motivation
  • Motivational process
  • A complex model for the motivation of employee
  • Motivational theories

Starting in the 50s, studies on motivation to work started and multiplied with the Human Relations School.

For an exhaustive overview of these contributions, the focus of the lecture is divided into two directions: (1) Content Theories, to focus attention on what "motivates people to work"; (2) Process Theories, to analyze how to intervene on the motivational process of an individual.

Motivation to work (D. Tomasi, 2011 – Translated by G. Flamini, 2019)

14

Organizational Culture and Ethical Values

  • Organizational Culture
  • Organization Design and Culture
  • Constructive Culture, Learning, and Performance
  • Ethical Values and Social Responsibility
  • How Managers Shape Culture and Ethics
  • Corporate Culture and Ethics in a Global Environment

The lecture explores ideas about corporate culture and associated ethical values and how organizations influence these. In the first section, we describe the nature of corporate culture, its origins and purpose, and how to identify and interpret culture by looking at the organization's rites and ceremonies, stories and myths, symbols, organization structures, power relationships, and control systems. Then, we examine how culture reinforces the strategy and structural design the organization needs to be effective in its environment and discuss the critical role of culture in organizational learning and high performance. Next, the lecture turns to ethical values and corporate social responsibility. We consider how managers implement the structures and systems that influence ethical and socially responsible behavior. Finally, we discuss how leaders shape culture and ethical values in a suitable direction for strategy and performance outcomes.

Chapter 10( [8] )

Pages: 384-412

Recommended readings: Implementing Change at National Industrial Products.

Pages: 413-414.

The Boys Versus Corporate.

Pages: 415-416.

15

OP4.COM CASE DISCUSSION

OP4.COM: A DYNAMIC CULTURE

16

Innovation and Change

  • The Strategic Role of Change
  • Elements for Successful Change
  • Technology Change
  • New Products and Services
  • Strategy and Structure Change
  • Culture Change
  • Strategies for Implementing Change

The lecture explores how organizations change and how managers direct the innovation and change process. First, we look at the forces driving a need for change in today's organizations. Next, we describe the four types of change— technology, product, structure, people—occurring in organizations and how to manage change successfully. The organization structure and management approach for facilitating each type of change is then discussed. Management techniques for influencing both the creation and implementation of change are also covered. Finally, we look at barriers to change, and implementation techniques managers can use to overcome resistance.

Chapter 11( [9] )

Pages: 420-453

Recommended readings:

Shoe Corporation of Illinois.

Pages: 456-460.

Southern Discomfort.

Page: 460

17

BOLDFLASH CASE DISCUSSION

BOLDFLASH CROSS-FUNCTIONAL CHALLENGES IN THE MOBILE DIVISION

18

Conflict, Power, and Politics

  • Interdepartmental Conflict in Organizations
  • Power and Organizations
  • Political Processes in Organizations
  • Using Soft Power and Politics

In the lecture, we discuss the nature of conflict and the use of power and political tactics to manage and reduce conflict among individuals and groups. First, we explore the nature of intergroup conflict, the characteristics of organizations that contribute to conflict, and the use of a political versus a rational model of organization to manage conflicting interests. After, we examine individual and organizational power, the vertical and horizontal sources of power for managers and other employees, and how power is used to attain organizational goals. We also look at the trend toward empowerment, sharing power with lower-level employees. Finally, we discuss ways managers increase their power, political tactics for using power, and some ways managers can enhance collaboration among people and departments.

Chapter 13( [10] )

Pages: 512-545

Recommended readings:

The Daily Tribune.

Pages: 547-548.

The New Haven Initiative.

Page: 548-549.



[1] Daft, R.L., Organizational Theory and Design, 12th ed., (2015). Southwestern Cengage Learning, Mason, OH; ISBN: 9781285866345

[2] Daft, R.L., Organizational Theory and Design, 12th ed., (2015). Southwestern Cengage Learning, Mason, OH; ISBN: 9781285866345

[3] Daft, R.L., Organizational Theory and Design, 12th ed., (2015). Southwestern Cengage Learning, Mason, OH; ISBN: 9781285866345

[4] Daft, R.L., Organizational Theory and Design, 12th ed., (2015). Southwestern Cengage Learning, Mason, OH; ISBN: 9781285866345

[5] Daft, R.L., Organizational Theory and Design, 12th ed., (2015). Southwestern Cengage Learning, Mason, OH; ISBN: 9781285866345

[6] Daft, R.L., Organizational Theory and Design, 12th ed., (2015). Southwestern Cengage Learning, Mason, OH; ISBN: 9781285866345

[7] Daft, R.L., Organizational Theory and Design, 12th ed., (2015). Southwestern Cengage Learning, Mason, OH; ISBN: 9781285866345

[8] Daft, R.L., Organizational Theory and Design, 12th ed., (2015). Southwestern Cengage Learning, Mason, OH; ISBN: 9781285866345

[9] Daft, R.L., Organizational Theory and Design, 12th ed., (2015). Southwestern Cengage Learning, Mason, OH; ISBN: 9781285866345

[10] Daft, R.L., Organizational Theory and Design, 12th ed., (2015). Southwestern Cengage Learning, Mason, OH; ISBN: 9781285866345